A Systematic Review of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Curricula in International Postgraduate Medical Professional Education | BMC Medical Education

Sub Levels


A summary of study characteristics is provided in Tables 1 and 2, and an additional summary of study characteristics is presented in Supplementary File 1. Specifically, Table 1 presents data on teaching methods and assessment outcomes, and Table 2 presents data on intervention implementation. Additional file with results organized by study characteristics 1.

Table 1 Survey results focusing on educational methods and evaluation results
TABLE 2 REVIEW RESULTS FOCUS ON INTERVENTION IMPLEMENTATION

Research characteristics

Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of the 32 included studies. 16% (5/32) of studies were published in 2018, starting with the highest percentage of studies. [26, 28, 29, 35, 44]13% (4/32) of studies were published in 2015 [36, 43, 45, 46]2022 [48, 50, 52, 53]2023 [47, 49, 51, 54], each. 2014 [32, 37, 39] and in 2020 [25, 34, 41] 9% (3/32) of each study, 2011 [33, 38]2016 [30, 31] and in 2017 [23, 42] each accounted for 6% (2/32) of the studies.2012 at last [27],2013 [40]2021 [24] Each accounted for 3% (1/32) of the studies.

The majority of studies were conducted in the United States (44%, 14/32) [23,24,25,26,27, 30, 36, 38, 40, 44, 47, 49, 53, 54]followed by the UK (13%, 14/32) [31, 32, 37, 48]Australia (9%, 3/32) [29, 33, 39]Canada (9%, 3/32) [28, 43, 51]Ireland (9%, 3/32) [34, 45, 50]Türkiye (6%, 2/32) [42, 52]Belgium (3%, 1/32) [35]Saudi Arabia (3%, 1/32) [41]South Africa (3%, 1/32) [46].

Regarding trainee demographics, most studies specifically targeted medical students (50%, 16/32) [26, 28, 30,31,32, 37, 38, 40, 42,43,44, 46, 47, 51,52,53]. Medical students followed by nurses (25%, 8/32) [23, 24, 33, 43, 44, 48, 50, 54]dentistry (19%, 6/32) [35, 36, 41, 45, 49, 50]Psychology (19%, 6/32) [23, 24, 27, 43, 44, 54]physical therapy (16%, 5/32) [24, 26, 33, 39, 43]occupational therapy (16%, 5/32) [24, 27, 29, 33, 43]social work (16%, 5/32) [23, 24, 33, 34, 54]and speech-language pathology (13%, 4/32) [23,24,25, 29] student. Other specialties included in IDD interventions were audiology (6%, 2/32). [23, 24]Nutrition (3%, 1/32) [23]physician assistant (3%, 1/32) [44]dental hygiene (3%, 1/32) [50]genetic counseling (3%, 1/32) [24].

For each program year of the trainees, the results varied and included the most studies.rd year (31%, 10/32) [26, 30, 31, 34, 38, 40, 45, 47, 48, 50]followed by 2nd year (28%, 9/32) [26, 27, 33, 46,47,48,49,50, 53],Fourth year (22%, 7/32) [32, 35,36,37, 46, 47, 49]and 1cent year (16%, 5/32) [27, 28, 33, 51, 53]. However, nearly half of the studies were unclear about learner levels (19%, 6/32) [23,24,25, 29, 52, 54] or including trainees for all years (16%, 5/32) [39, 41,42,43,44].

Curriculum Features

Many of the interventions involved teachers (72%, 23/32) [23,24,25,26,27, 29, 32, 34, 36,37,38, 40, 43,44,45,46, 48,49,50,51,52,53,54] and/or patient, parent, or caregiver (53%, 17/32) [23, 28, 30,31,32,33,34, 37, 43, 45, 48,49,50,51,52,53,54] as a lecturer. In addition, some studies used the expertise of non-faculty experts as instructors (25%, 8/32) [30,31,32, 40, 48, 50, 51, 54]. Interestingly, some studies utilized past experience of former trainees and seniors using them as instructors (6%, 2/32) [28, 33]. However, in 16% (5/32) of his studies, the lecturer type was classified as unclear. [35, 39, 41, 42, 47].

The majority of interventions were one session (38%, 12/32) [26, 29,30,31,32,33, 40,41,42,43,44, 50]. On the other hand, there were some long-term studies longer than 3 months (16%, 5/32) [23, 24, 34, 46, 54]However, some of these studies were non-consecutive and often differed in time between sessions. Additionally, a significant number of studies had a duration of 1–3 months (28%, 9/32) [27, 35, 36, 39, 45, 47, 48, 51, 53]a few studies were short-lived (16%, 5/32) [25, 28, 38, 49, 52].

Regarding intervention settings, most included non-clinical settings (75%, 24/32) [23,24,25, 28,29,30,31,32,33,34, 36, 37, 41,42,43,44,45, 47,48,49,50,51,52, 54]followed by professional clinical settings (22%, 7/32) [26, 35, 38, 40, 45, 49, 52]and non-professional clinical settings (16%, 5/32) [25, 39, 45, 47, 53]. Similarly, some facilities were classified as clinical, but it was not clear whether the facility was a specialty center (6%, 2/32). [24, 27]. Finally, intervention settings were unclear in 3% (1/32) of studies. [46].

educational approach

Most of the studies used an empirical approach to teaching (88%, 28/32). Experiential activities usually included clinical experience (63%, 20/32) [24,25,26,27, 29, 31,32,33,34,35,36, 38,39,40, 42, 44, 47, 49, 52, 53]defined as any intervention that replicates or involves a clinical encounter, some examples include simulation or role-playing with standardized patients (6%, 2/14) [29, 31]. Other forms of experiential education took the form of patient/parent/caregiver testimonials (31%, 10/32) [23, 28, 30, 37, 43, 46, 48, 51,52,53] and workshops (3%, 1/32) [45]. Similarly, many of the studies utilized theoretical approaches to teaching (59%, 19/32) [23, 24, 30, 32, 34, 37, 41,42,43,44,45,46,47, 49,50,51,52,53,54], often in the form of didactic lectures. However, some studies utilize case studies, educational DVDs, and interactive hypothetical scenarios to teach theory. Additionally, although didactic, some studies utilized patients/parents/caregivers as instructors and curriculum developers. Finally, most studies used interdisciplinary education (35%, 11/32) [23,24,25,26,27, 29, 33, 43, 44, 50, 54]. Interprofessional methods have always been seen in addition to other approaches to learning, such as experiential and/or theoretical.

educational achievement

Various assessment methods were used to assess the outcomes of the interventions. Participants overwhelmingly rated their own learning (84%, 27/32) [23,24,25,26, 28, 30,31,32,33,34, 36, 37, 39,40,41, 43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54]. Participants’ assessments were often in the form of pre- and post-intervention surveys, in which participants were compared to their pre-intervention scores. Assessment also took the form of a learning assessment to test knowledge gained (28%, 9/32) [25, 28, 38, 41, 42, 42, 43, 47, 49]. Some studies chose to assess the intervention itself through a participant survey to assess the design and effectiveness of the intervention (22%, 7/32) [25, 27,28,29,30, 33, 34]. One of the studies was a community service learning experience that focused on community outcomes and therefore lacked a learner assessment method. [35].

Regarding study outcomes, the Kirkpatrick model was applied to assess the outcomes of educational interventions. In our review, the mean and median values ​​were 2.16 and 2.5, respectively (for 2A = 2.0 and 2B = 2.5). Score order 9% (3/32) [33, 33, 45] Six percent (2/32) of the studies were rated as Level 0 because no change was seen. [27, 34] 31% (10/32) were rated as Level 1 indicating only response to the learning experience [26, 29, 38, 44, 48, 50,51,52,53,54] 31% (10/32) were rated as Level 2A, indicating a change in attitude [24, 28, 31, 40,41,42,43, 46, 47, 49] 19% (6/32) were rated as Level 2B, indicating modified knowledge or skills [23, 25, 30, 32, 36, 39] 3% (1/32) rated as level 3 indicating behavior change [37] The studies were rated Level 4A and indicated a change in systems/organizational practices. No papers were rated Level 4B because they did not show significant improvement in student performance as a direct result of teaching.

A review of the BEME evidence-based scoring system yielded a mean of 3 and a median of 3. Scored 16% (5/32) [27, 35, 37, 38, 45] Percentage of Grade 1 papers – unable to draw clear conclusions, 13% (4/32) [29, 33, 41, 48] Percentage of Grade 2 papers – trending but equivocal results, 28% (9/32) [24, 26, 28, 34, 44, 46, 49, 50, 54] Grade 3 papers – conclusions probably based on findings, 44% (14/32) [23, 25, 30,31,32, 36, 39, 40, 42, 43, 47, 51,52,53] Grade 4 paper – The results are clear and very likely true. No papers were rated 5. The results are clear, as they typically have small samples and rely heavily on questionnaires without long-term evaluation.



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